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A Beginner's Guide to Smart Patient Monitoring Technology

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-04-26      Origin: Site

Whether you're a medical student or teacher looking to expand your knowledge on patient monitoring systems or an interested distributor seeking information on the MeCan patient monitor's prices and features, we hope this article provides valuable insights. Our goal is to help individuals better understand the importance of monitoring vital signs and choosing reliable equipment. For further inquiries or to learn more about our products, feel free to contact us anytime.

What are Patient Monitors

A patient monitor is a device or system that is designed to measure and control a patient's physiological parameters and can be compared to a known set value, and can sound an alarm if there is an exceedance.


Indications and scope of use

1. Indications: When patients have important organ dysfunction, especially heart and lung dysfunction, and need monitoring when vital signs are unstable

2. Scope of application: during surgery, post-surgery, trauma care, coronary heart disease, critically ill patients, newborns, premature babies, Hyperbaric oxygen chamber, delivery room


Basic Structure

The basic structure of the patient monitor consists of four parts: the main unit, the monitor, various sensors and the connection system. The main structure is embodied in the whole machine and accessories.

patient monitor     patient monitor accessories

                      MCS002212 inch Patient Monitor                         Patient Monitor Accessories


Classification of Patient Monitors

There are four categories based on structure: portable monitors, plug-in monitors, telemetry monitors, and Holter (24-hour ambulatory ECG) ECG monitors.
According to the function is divided into three categories: bedside monitor, central monitor, and discharge monitor (telemetry monitor).

What is Multiparameter Monitor?

The basic functions of the Multiparameter-Monitor include electrocardiogram (ECG), Respiratory (RESP), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP), Pulse Oxygen Saturation (SpO2), Pulse Rate (PR), and Temperature (TEMP).

At the same time, invasive blood pressure (IBP) and End-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) can be configured according to clinical needs.


Below we describe the principles of the basic parameters measured by the patient monitor and the precautions for their use.

Electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring

The heart is an important organ in the human circulatory system. Blood can flow continuously in the closed system due to the constant rhythmic systolic and diastolic activity of the heart. The tiny electrical currents that occur when the heart muscle is excited can be conducted through the body tissues to the surface of the body, causing different potentials to be generated in different parts of the body. The electrocardiogram (ECG) measures the electrical activity of the heart and displays it on the patient monitor with wave patterns and values. The following is a brief description of the steps to obtain an ECG and the parts of the heart that are reflected in each lead ECG.

I. Skin preparation for electrode attachment
Good skin-to-electrode contact is very important to ensure good ECG signal because skin is a poor conductor of electricity.
1. Select a site with intact skin and without any abnormalities.
2. If necessary, shave off the body hair of the corresponding area.
3. Wash with soap and water, do not leave soap residue. Do not use ether or pure ethanol, they will dry the skin and increase the resistance.
4. Allow the skin to dry completely.
5. Rub the skin gently with ECG skin preparation paper to remove dead skin and improve the conductivity of the electrode paste site.

II. Connect the ECG cable
1. Before putting electrodes, install clips or snap buttons on the electrodes.
2. Place the electrodes on the patient according to the selected lead position scheme (see the following diagram for details of the standard 3-lead and 5-lead attachment method, and note the difference in color markings between American Standard AAMI and European Standard IEC cables).
3. Connect the electrode cable to the patient cable.

Electrode label name

Electrode color






Right arm





Left arm





Left leg








































III. Differences between the 3-lead group and the 5-lead group and the heart sites reflected by each lead
1. As can also be seen from the above figure, we can obtain I, II, and III lead ECGs in the 3-lead group, while the 5-lead group can obtain I, II, III, aVL, aVR, aVF, and V lead ECGs.
2. I and aVL reflect the anterior lateral wall of the left ventricle of the heart; II, III and aVF reflect the posterior wall of the ventricle; aVR reflects the intraventricular chamber; and V reflects the right ventricle, septum and left ventricle (depending on what you require leading to the selection).


Respiratory (Resp) monitoring
Thoracic movement during respiration causes changes in body resistance, and the graph of changes in impedance values describes the dynamic waveform of respiration, which can display respiratory rate parameters. Generally, monitors will measure the chest wall impedance between the two ECG electrodes on the patient's chest to achieve respiratory rate monitoring. In addition, the change in carbon dioxide concentration during the respiratory period can be monitored to directly calculate the respiratory rate or by monitoring the change in pressure and flow rate in the patient's circuit during mechanical ventilation to calculate the patient's respiratory work and reflect the respiratory rate.
I. Position of leads during monitoring respiration
1. Respiratory measurements are performed using the standard ECG cable-level lead scheme, as shown in the figure above.
II. Notes on respiratory monitoring
1. Respiratory monitoring is not suitable for patients with a large range of activity, as this may lead to false alarms.
2. It should be avoided that the hepatic region and the ventricle are on the line of the respiratory electrodes, so that artifacts from cardiac coverage or pulsatile blood flow can be avoided, which is especially important for neonates.

Blood oxygen (SpO2) monitoring
Blood oxygen (SpO2) is the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin to the sum of oxygenated hemoglobin plus non-oxygenated hemoglobin. The two types of hemoglobin in blood, oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) and reduced hemoglobin (Hb), have different absorption capacities for red light (660 nm) and infrared light (910 nm). Reduced hemoglobin (Hb) absorbs more red light and less infrared light. The opposite is true for oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2), which absorbs less red light and more infrared light. By setting the red LED and infrared LED light at the same location of the nail oximeter, when the light penetrates from one side of the finger to the other side and is received by the photodiode, a corresponding proportional voltage can be generated. After algorithm conversion processing, the output result is displayed on the LCD screen, which is visualized as a gauge to measure the human health index. The following is a brief description of the steps on how to obtain blood oxygen (SpO2), and the factors affecting blood oxygen monitoring.
I. Wear the sensor
1. Remove the colored nail polish from the wearing area.
2. Put the SpO2 sensor on the patient.
3. Verify that the luminous tube and light receiver are aligned with each other to ensure that all light emitted from the luminous tube must pass through the patient's tissues.
II. Factors affecting blood oxygen monitoring
1. Sensor position is not in place or the patient is in strenuous motion.
2. ipsilateral arm blood pressure or ipsilateral lateral lying compression.
3. Avoid interference of signal by bright light environment.
4. Poor peripheral circulation: such as shock, low finger temperature.
5. Fingers: nail polish, thick calluses, broken fingers, and excessively long nails affect light transmission.
6. Intravenous injection of colored drugs.
7. Cannot monitor the same site for a long time.


Non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitoring
Blood pressure is the lateral pressure per unit area in a blood vessel due to the flow of blood. It is customarily measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Noninvasive blood pressure monitoring is performed by the Koch sound method (manual) and the shock method, which uses mean arterial pressure (MP) to calculate systolic (SP) and diastolic (DP) pressures.
I. Precautions
1. Select the correct patient type.
2. Keep the cuff level with the heart.
3. Use the appropriate size cuff and tie it so that the "INDEX LINE" is within the "RANGE" range.
4. The cuff should not be too tight or too loose, and it should be tied so that one finger can be inserted.
5. The φ mark of the cuff should be facing the brachial artery.
6. The time interval of automatic measurement should not be too short.
II. Non-invasive blood pressure influencing factors
1. Severe hypertension: systolic blood pressure exceeds 250 mmHg, the blood flow cannot be completely blocked, the cuff may be continuously inflated and the blood pressure cannot be measured.
2. Severe hypotension: systolic blood pressure is less than 50-60mmHg, blood pressure is too low to continuously display the instantaneous blood pressure changes, and may be repeatedly inflated.

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